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Chemistry

Crystal structure analysis

The Debye-Scherrer method: In the Debye-Scherrer method, powdered, crystalline material (hence the powder method) is bombarded with X-rays. If a crystalline crumb is lying in such a way that Bragg's law is fulfilled, the X-rays are optimally diffracted. The sum of all the diffracted rays from a grating again creates a cone which is imaged on the photographic film.
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Chemistry

Reaction order

1st order reaction The differential equation describing the rate of turnover of A reads: dadt = −ka Integration of this equation gives the time law of the decrease in concentration of A (initial concentration of A = a0): a (t) = a0e − kt If the concentrations of the educt A are transferred or a product (e.g.
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Chemistry

Electromagnetic Radiation (EMS)

In chemistry, electromagnetic radiation is of particular importance. It can set molecules in rotation and oscillation or shoot electrons out of their orbits around the atomic nuclei & 34; & 34 ;. Electromagnetic radiation includes waves from radio and television, light, X-ray and gamma radiation, or thermal radiation.
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Chemistry

Chemistry for medical professionals

Lactic acid Both enantiomers of lactic acid occur in nature. Lactic acid (2-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate) is formed in particular from pyruvic acid (2-oxopropionic acid, pyruvate) when the anaerobic route of glycolysis is followed. Pyruvate is reduced to lactate by oxidoreductases (i.e. enzymes that catalyze redox reactions), whereby NADH is oxidized to NAD +.
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Chemistry

Reduction reactions in organic chemistry

Wolff-Kishner reduction: Introduction Reaction principle: In the Wolff-Kishner reduction, a ketone is first reacted with hydrazine to form the hydrazone, which is then converted into the methylene group by base-catalyzed hydrogen shifts and subsequent protonation. With this reduction, ketones and oxocarboxylic acids can be converted into the corresponding alkanes and carboxylic acids.
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Chemistry

Chemistry for medical professionals

In the context of chemistry for medical professionals, only the most important types of reactions are dealt with. In addition to the types listed below, which play a role in both inorganic and organic chemistry, these include some reactions of organic substances (substitutions, additions and eliminations), which are described in the chapters on organic chemistry.
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